Dr. Christopher Lucky SAKPA MB.BS, M.Sc., Ph.D., FWACS

Dr. Christopher Lucky SAKPA

MB.BS, M.Sc., Ph.D., FWACS

Ag. Head, Department of Anatomy

ACADEMIC STAFF OF THE DEPARTMENT

S/NNAMEQUALIFICATIONSRank
 Dr. Christopher Lucky Sakpa MB.BS, M.Sc., Ph.D., FWACSAssociate Professor / Ag. Head of Department
 Professor Jacob EhiagwinaAtamanMB.BS, M.Sc, Ph.DProfessor
 Dr. Gerald Ikechi EzeMB.BS, M.Sc., Ph.D., FWACPAssociate Professor
 Dr. Silvanus OluInnihB.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.DSenior Lecturer
 Dr. Vitalis ChukwumaEzeukoB.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.DSenior Lecturer
 Dr. Adaze Bijou EnogieruB.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.DSenior Lecturer
 Dr. Daniel Enohense OdiaseMB.BS, M.Sc., Ph.DSenior Lecturer
 Dr. Sylvester Ifeanyi OmoruyiB.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.DSenior Lecturer
 Dr. Richard Ehimigbai MB.BS; M.Sc.Lecturer I
 Mr. Oghenakhogie Iroboudu MomoduB.Sc., M.Sc.Lecturer I
 Dr. Ebho-Oriaze Ighalo MB.BS, M.Sc.Lecturer I
 Dr. Edobor ObayuwanaB.Sc., MB.BS, M.Sc.Lecturer I
 Mrs. Taiwo Jelilat OyedejiB.Sc., M.Sc. Lecturer I
 Dr. Usman Osagie IdemudiaMB.BS, M.Sc.Lecturer I
 Dr. Endurance Osakioduwa ImafidonMB.BS,  M.Sc.Lecturer I
 Dr. Mrs. Mabel BiluEhi-OmosunMB.BS,  M.Sc.Lecturer I
 Dr. Edoghogho Tracy Lawal       MB.BS,  M.Sc.Lecturer I
 Miss Akporobo EjeguoB.Sc., M.ScLecturer II
 Miss Racheal AkporufuomaOrheruataB.Sc., M.ScLecturer II


LABORATORY SCIENTISTS/TECHNOLOGISTS

S/NNAMEQUALIFICATIONSRANK
 Mrs. Sophia Ivie OsamaB.Sc (Microbiology)Laboratory Technologist II
 Mr. Oluwagbenga Oladele AkeredoluB.Sc (Anatomy)Laboratory Technologist II
 Mr. William Osarenkenuhunrie AiyevbomwanB.Sc (Anatomy)Prosector
 Mr. Solomon EdiginGCE O/LSenior Laboratory Surpervisor
 Mr. Omodamwen EdiginGCE O/LSenior Laboratory Surpervisor
 Mr. Festus EhigiamusoeGCE O/LSenior Laboratory Surpervisor
 Mr. Clifford Osiregbemeh OshioleGCE O/LLaboratory Assistant
 Miss Omon IkpekhiaGCE O/LHead Laboratory Attendant

ADMINISTRATIVE/EXECUTIVE STAFF

S/NNAMEQUALIFICATIONSRANK
 Valentine OshiobugieIgbafeB.A, MPAAdminstrative Officer
 Mrs. Helen Erokpadamwen AghamaB.Sc.Principal Executive Officer
 Mrs. Ivie Edna OmokhuaB.Sc.Senior Executive Officer
 Mrs. Eniye OwieSSCEChief Clerical Officer

PHILOSOPHY AND OBJECTIVES:

The Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) programme in Anatomy is designed to provide adequate and intensive training in human and cell biology of related disciplines in health sciences such as Physiology, Biochemistry, Radiology, Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nursing Science, Physiotherapy, and Social science. Teaching will be clinically oriented to ensure that products of the programme would be able to render the most required assistance as Anatomy teachers in medical institutions, research and hospital laboratories. Graduates of the programme will be well equipped with sufficient theoretical and practical knowledge and thus eligible for higher degree studies in any aspect of Anatomy and its related discipline.

PHILOSOPHY, OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE

The objective of the anatomy course is to provide the undergraduate student with a programme of course works and techniques that will enable him to become scholarly contributors to the field of Anatomy.  It is anticipated that many of the graduate would advance further to become teachers of Anatomy. However, some may choose to go into positions in government laboratories and in physical and health education sectors as well as in sports.

The human Anatomy course is designed to provide the undergraduate student with basic knowledge of several sub-disciplines of anatomy, including gross anatomy, developmental anatomy (embryology), cell biology, histology and neuroanatomy. Core courses in other areas of biomedical science ensure a broad area in which to build a research career.

GENERAL INFORMATION

The science of Anatomy is the study of the form and structure of the living body and the organs, which form it. It also entails the regulations of these structures in relation to their functions and external environment.  The science of human anatomy forms the foundation of the science of medicine and other human biological studies. It is a field of study, which is still dependent on technique, and a corpus of observations but it is capable of correlation with other fields of study in the science of medicine and human biology.

DEGREE PROGRAMME AND REQUIREMENTS

The degree programme will last three years for direct entry students and four years for students admitted through UTME.  To be eligible for admission to a degree of B.Sc. in Anatomy, a candidate should have

  1. Satisfied the normal University requirements.
  2. Satisfied the approved school of basic medical science requirements in respect of work load, registration for courses and programme duration.

Satisfied the departmental requirements as contained below.

 

 

FIRST YEAR (100L) COURSES FOR THE DEPARTMENTS OF ANATOMY, MEDICAL BIOCHEMISTRY, MEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE, NURSING SCIENCE, PHYSIOLOGY, PHYSIOTHERAPY AND RADIOGRAPHYAND RADIATION SCIENCE IN THE SCHOOL.

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLECOURSE CREDIT
AEB111Introductory Zoology4
BMS111Elementary Mathematics2
CHM111General Chemistry I3
CHM113Organic Chemistry I3
GST111Use of English I2
GST112Philosophy & Logic2
PBB111Introduction to Plant Biology I3
PHY111Mechanics, Thermal Physics & Properties of Matter3
PHY113Vibrations, Waves & Optics3
TOTAL: 25

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLECOURSE CREDIT
AEB122Functional Zoology4
CHM122General Chemistry II3
CHM124Organic Chemistry II3
GST121Peace Studies and Conflicts Resolution2
GST122Nigerian People & Culture2
GST123History & Philosophy of Science and Technology2
PBB122Introduction to Plant Biology II3
PHY109Practical Physics2
PHY124Electromagnetism and Modern Physics4
TOTAL: 25

All Courses Are Core At This Level. Total course credit for the Session: 50 

DESCRIPTION OF FIRST YEAR COURSES FOR FIRST DEGREE PROGRAMMES

AEB111: INTRODUCTORYZOOLOGY(4 Credits)

Man population growth and impact on the biosphere. Faunal biodiversity.

Invertebrate – protozoa, coelenterate, platyhelminthes, annelida, mollusca, arthropoda.

Vertebrata – Cephalochordata, pisces, amphibian, reptilia, aves, mammalia. Mammalian anatomy: anatomy of rattus rattus.

BMS111: ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS 1 (2  Credits)

Polynomials and their factorization, rational function. Trigonometry definitions and elementary properties of trigonometric function, radian measure, periodicity of identities. Formulas for sum, product and quotient. The chain rule. Differentiation of definite and indefinite algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions maxims and minima, tangential and normal. Fundamental theory of calculus, simple application to areas and volumes, Methods of integration.

CHM111: GENERAL CHEMISTRY 1 (3 Credits)

Relationship of chemistry to other sciences, Atoms, sub-atomic particles, isotopes, molecules, Avogadro’s number, Mole concept. Dalton’s theory. Modern concepts of atomic theory. Laws of chemical combination. Relative atomic masses.

Introduction to nuclear reactions, Nuclear binding energy, fusion and fission reactions.

States of Matter: Gases, gas laws, general gas equation, liquids and solids.

Introduction to lattice structure. Isomorphism, giant molecules.

Introduction to the periodic table, hydrogen and hydrides, chemistry of groups: 0. I,II elements. Acid-Base properties of oxides.

CHM113: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I (3 Credits)

General principles of organic chemistry: Definition, classification, homologous series, functional groups; General procedure for isolation and Purification of organic compounds, Structure of organic compounds, Elemental analysis, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, structural formula.

Isomerism: structural and stereoisomerism; Electronic theory in organic chemistry.

Non-polar functional groups: Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Benzene.

Nomenclature: Common names, IUPAC names; Introduction too petrochemistry, Coal tar chemistry.

GST111:  USE OF ENGLISH 1 (2 Credits)

Modes and methods of effective communication in English.  Use of literary works to improve communication skills.  Development of reading and writing skills. Note taking and summarizing from oral English and written instructions on lexis. Collection for written assignments.

GST112:  PHILOSOPHY AND LOGIC (2 Credits)

Introduction to the main branches of philosophy, symbolic logic.  Special symbol in symbolic logic.  Conjugation, negation, affirmation, disjunction, equivalence and conditional statements. Law of thought. Method of deduction using rules of inference and biconditional qualification theory.

PBB111:               INTRODUCTION TO PLANT BIOLOGY I (3 Credits)

Morphology and life circle of plant and animals. A general study of plant and animal groups from virus, algae/fungi to chordates. Structural and functional study of plants and animal cells, tissues, organs and systems.  Taxonomic, physiological and developmental studies of plant and animals. Reproduction, genetic, hereditary substances, mechanism of nuclear division and stem cell formation. Evolution and natural selection. Biology practicals and demonstrations.

PHY111: MECHANICS, THERMAL PHYSICS AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER

(3 Credits)

Scalars and vectors: Addition and Resolution of Vectors. Rectilinear Motion and Newton’s laws of Motion. Inertial mass and gravitational Mass; Free fall; projectile motion, deflecting forces and circular motion. Newton’s law of Gravitation; Satellites, escape velocity. Gravitational Potential well; special case of circular motion. Laws of thermodynamics and thermal energy, temperature, calorimetry, change of state, critical points. Heat transfer, conduction, convection and radiation. Blackbody radiation. Gas laws. Kinetic theory of gases. Model for matter; surface energy and surface tension, plastic deformation; thermal and electrical properties of metals.

PHY113: VIBRATIONS, WAVES AND OPTICS (3 Credits)

Periodic motion of an oscillator; velocity and acceleration of a sinusoidal oscillation, equation of motion of a simple harmonic oscillator: damped oscillations, forced oscillations, resonance, and propagation of longitudinal and transverse vibrations.

Wave behaviour; Reflection of waves, stationary waves, propagation of straight and circular pulses, Fibre optics. Diffraction, Refraction, Dispersion, Interference, Coherence, Polarisation.

Wave and Light: Mirrors, Lenses, formation of images, lenses in contact microscope, telescope, chromatic and spherical aberrations and their reduction. Dispersion by prisms; relation between colour and wavelength, spectra.

SECOND SEMESTER

AEB122: FUNCTIONAL ZOOLOGY (4 Credits)

Embryology–gametogenesis, fertilization and cleavage as demonstrated by Amphioxus, Genetics: the cell and distribution of genetic material, mitosis, meiosis, meiosis inheritance, sex determination and sex linked inheritance.  Histology. Cells, tissues, organ formation and main features. Physiology: functioning of mammalian skin, muscles/skeleton, alimentary system/nutritional requirements and deficiencies.

CHM122: GENERAL CHEMISTRY II (3 Credits)

Acids, Bases and salts.  Quantitative and qualitative analysis. Theory of volumetric analysis-operations and methods. Calculations: mole, molarity, molality. Behavior of electrolytes. Water. Colligative properties. Ostwald’s dilution law. Arthenius, Bronsted-Lowry, lewis concepts and applications.  Buffers – introduction to reaction rates. Equilibria and equilibrium constants. Solubility products. Common effects. Precipitation reactions, Chemistry of Redox reactions.

CHM124: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II (3 Credits)

 Polar function group chemistry. Hydroxyl group carbonyl group, carboxylic group Carboxylic acid derivatives and amino acids. Miscellanceous topics – fats and oils, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates and natural products.

GST121: PEACE STUDIES AND CONFLICTS RESOLUTION (2 Credits)

GST122: NIGERIAN PEOPLE AND CULTURE (2 Credits)

History, norms and cultural characteristics of African and the Nigerian society in particular, role of culture in the behaviors of Nigerian. The African society, development, migration, large and small rural movements and its effect on man and disease, the Nigerian rural and urban societies and diseases. Changing patterns of diseases in rural and urban societies. Changing moral values. Cultural nationalism and political evolution of African states. concepts of religion in humanistic functions. Role and concepts of functional education in national development.

GST123: HISTORY & PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (2 Credits)

PBB122: INTRODUCTION TO PLANT BIOLOGY II (3 Credits)

The general morphology, anatomy, histology and physiology of flowering plants, seed structure, dispersal and germination: development of primary and secondary plant body; water relations; photosynthesis, translocation, and storage organs, respiration.

PHY109: PRACTICAL PHYSICS (2 Credits)

Students are expected to carry out a minimum of 12 major experiments covering the main aspects of the courses taken in the year.

PHY124: ELECTROMAGNETISM AND MODERN PHYSICS (4 Credits)

Electromagnetism – electric field: strength, flux and the inverse square law; electrostatic force between two charged particles; flux model for the electric field. Energy stored in an electric field, electrical potential due to dipole.

Steady direct current: Simple circuits, potential difference, resistance, power, electromotive force, Kirchoff’s laws, Potential divider, slide wire potentiometer, bridge circuits, combining resistances.

Capacitors; Capacitance, combination of dielectrics, energy store charging/discharging.

Electromagnetic effects: Electromagnetic forces, electric motors, moving coil galvanometer, ammeter, voltmeter, electromagnetic induction, dynamo.

Alternating currents: Simple AC circuit, transformers, motors and alternating currents.

Magnetic field: The field at the center of a current carrying flat coil, of a current carrying solenoid, outside a long solenoid; flux model and magnetic fields.

SECOND YEAR (200L) COURSES FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLECOURSE CREDIT
ANT210General Anatomy and Gross Anatomy of the Upper Limbs2
ANT211Gross Anatomy of Thorax2
ANT212Basic Histology & Cytology2
ANT213General Embryology2
MBC210Introductory Biochemistry2
MBC211Introductory Analytical Techniques2
PHS211Introductory and General Physiology2
PHS212Blood and Body fluid Physiology2
PHS213Cardiovascular System2
PHS214Respiratory Physiology2
TOTAL 20

SECOND   SEMESTER

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLECOURSE CREDIT
ANT220Gross Anatomy of the Abdomen, Pelvis and Perineum.2
ANT221Gross Anatomy of the Lower Limbs2
ANT222Systemic Histology 13
ANT223Systemic Embryology 13
MBC220Carbohydrate & Lipid Metabolism3
MBC223Amino acid & Protein Metabolism3
MBC225Protein Chemistry & Enzymology3
PHS221Renal Physiology2
PHS222Gastrointestinal Physiology2
PHS223Endocrinology & Reproduction3
PHS224Temperature Regulation1
TOTAL 27

               TOTAL CREDIT FOR THE YEAR…………………………47

Notes:

  1. The Gross Anatomy lectures are associated with the dissection of the relevant regions.
  2. ALL COURSES ARE CORE

THIRD YEAR (300L) COURSES FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

FIRSTSEMESTER

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLECOURSE CREDIT 
ANT311Gross Anatomy of Head & Neck3
ANT312Systemic Histology II3
ANT313Systemic Embryology II3
ANT314Neuroanatomy I2
PHS312Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System Physiology2
PHS313Autonomic and Neurophysiology3
CED300Introduction to Theory and Practice of Entrepreneurship2
BOT315Biostatistics2
TOTAL 20

SECOND   SEMESTER

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLECOURSE CREDIT
ANT320Instrumentation2
ANT321Functional Anatomy of Limbs2
ANT322Relevant Laboratory Techniques3
ANT323History of Anatomy & Medical Genetics3
ANT324Gross Anatomy of Cranial Nerves and Autonomic Nervous System2
ANT325Neuroanatomy II2
PCO320Introductory Pharmacology2
MMB321Introductory Microbiology1
MBC320Clinical Biochemistry3
TOTAL 20

                       TOTAL CREDIT FOR THE YEAR………………………40

FOURTH YEAR (400L) COURSES FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLECOURSE CREDIT
ANT411Gross Anatomy (Prosection I)6
ANT412Cell Biology I3
ANT413Histochemistry & Cytochemistry3
ANT414Functional Anatomy of Thorax & Abdomen3
TOTAL 15

SECOND SENESTER

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLECOURSE CREDIT
ANT421Gross Anatomy (Prosection II)4
ANT422Systemic Embryology III – Review3
ANT423Cell Biology II3
ANT424Systemic Histology III3
ANT425Research Project & Viva6
ANT426Seminar Presentation2
 TOTAL21

                       TOTAL CREDIT FOR THE YEAR…………………………36

A SUMMARY OF THE LOAD FOR THE PROGRAMME

LEVEL100200300400TOTAL
CREDITS50474036173

COURSE DESCRIPTION

SECOND YEAR COURSES

ANT210:  GENERAL ANATOMY AND GROSS ANATOMY OF THE UPPER LIMBS (2 Credits)

The general descriptive terms as used in the study of the human body would be introduced. The techniques used to study the human body would also be introduced. The normal anatomical position and directional movement of body parts would be introduced.

The gross anatomy of the upper limbs: pectoral region, Axilla, Brachial plexus, scapular region, brachium, carpal tunnel, Hand, Nerve injuries, oseteo-logy and joint of the upper limb, the vascular anastomosis and lymphatic drainage of the breast and upper limb would be studied.

ANT211:  Gross Anatomy of THORAX(2 Credits)

Description of the thorax: The sternum and ribs, thoracic vertebrae, Heart and great vessels, thoracic duct, dissection of the entire thoracic region, Azygos system of vein, intercostal spaces, Mediastinum, lungs bronchiopulmonary tree and segments, thoracic diaphragm, Aorta and respiratory movement.

ANT212: BASIC histology and cytology (2 Credits)

Description: Structure and the function of the cell, general histology basic tissues of the body. Preparation of tissues for microscopy is a practical oriented course that is studied along side with the theoretically based lecture.

ANT213:  GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY (2 Credits)

Gametogenesis, fertilization, implantation, cleavage, the morula, the blastocyst formation of the primitive streak, the Bilaminar and trilaminar germ disc. Development of tissues and organ systems of the embryo, the chorionic and amniotic cavities, foetal membranes, placental formation and functions. Birth defects, chromosomal and factors. Twins and twin defects, general characteristics of the embryonic environment and foetal periods.

MBC210: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY (2 Credits)

Short history and Definition of Biochemistry. Importance  of Biochemistry to medicine and other scientific disciplines. The living  cell. Organization and Molecular architecture. Types of cells and their characteristics. Structure and organization of Biological membranes. Biomolecules and the origin of life. Chemistry of Biomolecules. Carbohydrates Classification, structure, distribution and functional role of named examples. Chemical properties and reactions. Essential fatty acids, Eicosanoids, fat-soluble vitamins –Structure and functions. Peptide bonds and hierarchy of protein structure Nucleic acids. RNA and DNA. Structure/function of enzymes. Zymogens. Active site and specificity of enzymes. Inhibition and Activation of enzymes. Factors affecting enzyme catalyses reaction. Allosteric enzymes. Isoenzymes. The Concepts of Avitaminoses, Hypovitaaminoses and Antivitamins. Vitamins and their Co-enzyme function. Biomedical importance of vitamins.

MBC211:  INTRODUCTORY ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES(2 Credits)

Measuring techniques in cell fractionation, Chromatography, Spectrophotometry, Electrophoresis and Calorimetry. Methods of studying the cell. Microscopy, histochemistry and cytochemistry. Autoradiography Vs. Scintillation counting. Cell fractionation methods including differential Centrifugation and Gradient centrifugation. Molecular hybridization including Paul Doty experiments. Acids, and bases. Buffers and buffer systems. Henderson Hassel Bach equation. Titration curves of acids and bases. End point indicators, Zwitterions, isoelectric pH and nucleic acid determination.

PHS211:  Introductory and General physiology (2 Credits)

Cell physiology, Physiochemical principles, Body fluids and Blood transport: Control systems. Excitable and contractile Cells. Introduction to ANS.

PHS212Blood and Body fluid PHYSIOLOGY (2 Credits)

Introduction and definition of body fluids and body fluid compartments. Regulation of body fluid volumes. Physiological variation of body fluid volumes. Techniques for quantifying various body fluid volumes.

Blood: Functions of blood and classifications of blood cells. Erythropoiesis. Haematological indices. Haemoglobin genotype and Blood groups. Immunology and cell defence.

PHS213:  Cardiovascular System (2 Credits)

Definition and functions of the cardiovascular system, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac myoelectrophysiology, cardiac cycle, Circulation of blood: cardiac output and regulation. Blood pressure. Haemodynamics and microcirculation. Pulmonary, Cerebral, Coronary, Splanchnic and muscle circulation, Shock and cardiovascular changes in exercise.

PHS214:  Respiratory System(2 Credits)

Definition and functions of the respiratory system, Physiologic anatomy of the respiratory system. Respiratory dynamics and work. Pulmonary ventilation: Lung volumes and capacities, Spirometry. Mechanism and mechanics of breathing, Lung surfactant, pulmonary circulation. Gas exchange and Gas transport. Oxygen Haemoglobin dissociation curve. Hypoxia and Dyspnoea. Respiratory changes in exercise and barometric changes. Control of breathing.

SECOND SEMESTER

ant220: GROSS ANATOMY OF THE ABDOMEN, PELVISAND PERINEUM

(2 Credits)

Abdomen: subdivision of the abdominal region and their applied anatomy, Anterior Abdominal wall, inguinal region, posterior abdominal wall, stomach, spleen, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, small and large intestine, celiac trunk, biliary apparatus, intra and supra colic compartment and recesses, appendix renal and suprarenal gland, dissection of the entire abdominal region for proper understanding of the entire region.

Pelvis & perineum: pelvic cavity wall and diaphragm. Urinary bladder, uterus, ovary, etc). Perineum, boundaries and subdivisions. Perineal pouches, external and internal genitalia, ischiorectal fossas. General dissection of the pelvis and perineal region.

ANT221:  Gross anatomy of The lower limbS (2 Credits)

The lower limb lumbar and lumbosacral plexus, femoral triangle, thigh, gluteal region, leg, foot, nerves injury and their applied anatomy.Popliteal fossa, Ankle joints, Arch of the foot, Osteology and joints of the lower limb. Vascular Anastomosis and lymphatic drainage of the lower limb.The theoretical aspect to go along side with the dissection of these regions in cadaver.

ANT222:  SYSTEMIC Histology 1 (3 Credits)

Systemic histology of cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract and musculoskeletal system.

ANT223:  SYSTEMIC Embryology 1(3 Credits)

The diaphragm, the cardiovascular, respiratory and gastro intestines systems. Development of the adrenal gland, the liver, the pancreas and the spleen. The urogenital, musculo-skeletal and integumentary system. The limbs, the molecular regulation and associated developmental anomalies of the systems.

MBC220: CARBOHYDRATE AND LIPID METABOLISM (3 Credits)

Structural inter-relationships of sugars. Stereochemistry of sugars. Hexoses, Pentoses, Disaccharides, Starch, Glycogen, and Polysaccharides. Methods of identifying sugars. Carbohydrate metabolism. Digestion and absorption. Glycolysis and control of Glycolysis. TCA Cycle and Pentose Phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate Pathway. Gluconeogenesis, Glycogenolysis and Glycogenesis. Mitochondrail electron transport chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation. Energy generation and storage in Biological systems.

Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism. The pyruvate and α–Ketoglutarate complexes and their regulation. Metabolism of lipids. Digestion and absorption. Role of Lipoproteins in lipid transport. Metabolism of lipoprotein in health and disease. Triacylglycerol oxidation and oxidation of fatty acids. Storage and mobilization of energy stores in adipocytes. Ketone bodies and Ketosis.

Interrelationship of fatty acid and carbohydrate biosynthesis/oxidation. Biological importance of Eicosanoids. glycolipids and sphingolipids. The Chemistry and metabolism of Steroids and Steroid hormones.

MBC223:  AMINO ACID AND PROTEIN METABOLISM (3 Credits)

Structure of amino acids. Peptide bonds. Metabolism and transport of amino acids and proteins. Digestion and absorption. Gammaglutamyl cycle. Detailed treatment of mechanism of deamination, transamination. Glutamate Dehydrogenase, Glutamate and Glutamine synthesis. The biochemical and clinical importance of these enzymes. Fate of Carbon skeleton. Urea cycle. The concepts of nitrogen balance. Nitrogen turnover in cells. Degradation of amino acids. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids. Aromatic acid degradation and inborn errors of metabolism, metabolism of uric acid. Integration and Compartmentation in intermediary metabolism. Metabolism of one carbon compounds. 

MBC225:  PROTEIN CHEMISTRY AND ENZYMOLOGY (3 Credits)

A review of the Structural Characteristic of proteins. Determination of N and C terminal amino acid. Amino acid sequence and sulphide bridges. Determination of Protein Structure by X-ray Crystallography. Biological functions of proteins. The oxygen transporting proteins (haemoglobin and myoglobin), connective tissue protein. Collagen and Elastin. Structure/function relationships.

Enzymes. Isolation and Purification from animals, plants and microorganisms. Zymogens and Isoenzymes. Characteristics of enzymes. Kinectics of enzyme catalysed reaction. Allosterism. Importance of enzymology in Medicine. Coenzymes and relationships to vitamins.

PHS221: Renal PHYSIOLOGY (2 Credits)

Definition and functions of the kidney. Physiologic anatomy of the kidney. Glomerular filtration. Tubular functions. Urine formation:- Dilute and concentrated urine. Counter current mechanism, Plasma clearance, renal autoregulation, ECF regulation, Acid-Base balance, Renin-Angiotensin system. 

PHS222: Gastrointestinal PHYSIOLOGY (2 Credits)

Definition and functions, Physiologic anatomy and Innervations of the GIT, Mastication, Deglutition, Salivary gland, Digestion and food absorption, Movement and Stomach emptying, Movements of the GIT, Vomiting and defecation, GIT secretions and juices, Liver and General metabolism (BMR).

PHS223: EndocrinOLOGY and Reproduction (3 Credits)

Definition and functions, Definition of Hormones, Methods of Measurement, Types and mechanism of Actions, Regulation, Physiologic anatomy, Hypothalamo-Hypothalamic releasing factors, Hypothalamic Nuclei, Hypothalamo-hypophyseal system, Pituitary gland, Tropic Hormones, GIT and other local hormones.

Structure and functions of male and female reproductive organs, Androgens, Spermatogenesis and fertility. Infertility in male. Monogenesis, Sexual cycle and hormonal regulations. Fertilization, Pregnancy and Parturition, Fertility and infertility in female. Family planning.

PHS224: TEMPERATURE REGULATION (1 Credit)

Body temperature and the environment, Mechanisms of heat Exchange, peripheral thermoreceptors, central thermoreceptors, hyperthermia, and hypothermia, Fever, heat Exhaustion and Heat stroke.

300 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

ANT311:Gross Anatomy of Head and Neck (3 Credits)

Skull, scalp and the face. Side of the Neck cervical fascia, posterior and anterior triangle of the neck, back of the Neck, cranial cavities, temporal and infratemporal regions, parotid region, submandibular region, deep structures of the neck, thyroid and parathyroid glands, oral cavity, pharynx and larynx, nasal cavity, Ear and orbit (eye).

ANT312: systemic Histology ii(3 Credits)

Microscopic anatomy of the brain and spinal cord. Microscopic history of the lungs, trachea, bronchus and alveoli.

ANT313: SYSTEMIC EMBRYOLOGY II (3 Credits)

Embryology of the respiratory system. Development of the face, the palate, the sinuses, the thyroid, pituitary and pineal glands. The teeth, development of the central and peripheral nervous systems.Develpoment of the eye and ear. The molecular regulation and associated developmental anomalies of the organs and systems.

ANT314: Neuroanatomy I (2 Credits)

Coverings of the brain and spinal cord. Forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain.  Ventricular systems, production and flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Ascending and descending tracts in the brain and spinal cord, External and internal structures of brain and spinal cord, structures and pathways in the brainstem and spinal cord.

PHS312: Hypothalamo-hypophyseal System Physiology (2 Credits)

Diagrammatic illustration of the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. Physiologic morphology of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland (anterior and posterior pituitary). Development (embryology) of the hypothalamo pituitary axis. Histology of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis

Cell types of the anterior pituitary gland – functions, distribution and staining characteristics. Blood supply of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. Hypothalmo-hypophyseal portal system. Nervous pathways of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis. Hypothalamo-hypophyseal nerve tract. Functions of the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic neurohormones and their functions. Hormones of the Posterior pituitary gland – site and mechanism of synthesis, transport, storage and release. Feedback mechanisms in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system.

PHS313: Autonomic and Neurophysiology (3 Credits)

Physiologic anatomy of the ANS. Functions of the ANS, Difference and Similarities between ANS and somatic nervous system. Divisions of the ANS. Characteristics of the Sympathetic and the Parasympathetic system. Similarities and differences. ANS effects on major organs of the body, Pharmacology of the ANS, ANS reflexes and Control centers.

Classification of Nerves, Sensory organs and receptors, Modalities of sensations. Reflexes:-reflex arc, act and action. Myotatic reflexes, postural reflexes, Mono and polysynaptic reflexes. Organization of the Nervous system, Spinal cord. Brain stem and the Brain and localization of functions, Sensory and Motor Tracts. Pyramidal and Extra Pyramidal Tracts. Basal ganglia, Thalamus and Hypothalamus, Cerebellum, Testicular formation and Limbic system, Alertness, Sleep, Memory and learning.

CED300: INTRODUCTION TO THEORY AND PRACTICE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP (2 credits)

You as an Entrepreneur, Getting started. Selecting the legal forms of business. Discovering Business Opportunities. The legal framework for the Entrepreneur. Government policies and Entrepreneurial activities, Ethical Issues in business, financing a new venture.  Sources marketing your product and services Employing people, Establishing and maintaining Accounting Records.  Budgeting for Control.

BOT315: BIOSTATISTICS (2 Credits)

Population and samples, Probability distribution, Normal Poison and Binomial distribution, Mean, Standard error, Standard deviation, skewness, Chi-test, Student tests, F-distribution, Regression, Correlation coefficient and Analysis of variance (one way and two ways).

SECOND SEMESTER

ANT320: INSTRUMENTATION (2 credits)

Students are to be taught and shown all equipment used in research and techniques in Anatomy available in the department. These includes microscopes and types, microtome and types, cryostat, tissue processor, scanning/transmission microscopes, etc.

Also, equipment used in applied anatomy research such as x-ray, ultrasonogram and others used in Histopathology and related fields are to be shown to the students with exposure to practical and theoretical baiss of the use and functions of these equipment. It may require field work to expose the students.

ANT321: Functional Anatomy of limbs(2 Credits)

Clinical application of knowledge of gross anatomy of the limbs as studied by dissection of cadaver to clinical medicine. Anatomy of common surgical exposure, outline clinical procedures associated with the limbs.

ANT322:  Relevant laboratory techniques (3 Credits)

It comprises of laboratory sections and lecture on histological techniques, fixation and staining techniques, photo microscopy, tissue preparation and embalming techniques.

ANT323:  History of Anatomy and Medical Genetics(3 Credits)

 Brief and basic history of Anatomy. Men that has contributed to the development of anatomy (herophillus, erasistratus, leanardo Da Vinci, Andrea Vesalius, William Harvey, fabricus, Galen etc) and their contributions. Introduction to medical genetics, Heritable and non-heritable characteristics, Patterns of inheritance. Human Chromosomas, Cytogenetic and karyotyping.

ANT324: Gross anatomy of cranial nerves and autonomic nervous system(2 Credits)

It deals with the proper study of the twelve cranial nerves. Their Nuclei of origin, course, distribution and clinical importance of these cranial nervous. The visceral nervous system will be considered.  Detail of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system based on their origin, course, distribution and their anatomical, physiological, and pharmacological differences will also be studied.

ANT325:NEUROANATOMY II (2credits)

A more detailed study of the coverings of the brain and spinal cord. Forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain.  Ventricular systems, production and flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Ascending and descending tracts in the brain and spinal cord, External and internal structures of brain and spinal cord, structures and pathways in the brainstem and spinal cord.

PCO320: INTRODUCTORY PHARMACOLOGY (2 Credits)

History of Pharmacology and its development. Introduction to pharmacokinetics; drug absorption and bioavailability. Drug metabolism, pharmacogenetics. Effects of disease on drug kinetics. Drug in pregnancy and the extreme age. Pharmacodynamics; dose-response relationships, LD50 ED50 and TD50. Therapeutic index; introduction of new drugs, clinical trials; adverse drug reactions and adverse reaction surveillance.

MMB321: INTRODUCTORY MICROBIOLOGY (1 Credit)

History, morphology, growth and nutrition. Classification and identification of bacteria. Bacterial genetics, bacteriophages, viruses, infection and resistance to infection. Sterilization and disinfection. Antimicrobial agents. Introduction parasites and fungi.

MBC320:  CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY (3 Credits)

Pancreatic function tests – to include secretion and pancreozymin stimulation tests.  Glucose tolerance test, insulin sensitivity test, estimation of amylase, Estimation of the activity of trypsin in duodenal contents, gastric function tests to include HCl secretion, histamine and augmented histamine tests. Fractional and tubeless test meals.  Instestinal absorption test, Vitamin absorption test, the Congo red test for amyloidosis and faecal fat estimations.  Diseases of the muscle. Lipidaemias, hyper and hypolio- proteinemia – definition, causes and investigation.

Physiology of the kidney, renal clearance. Urea clearance, creatinine and inulin clearances. Concentration and dilution tests. lmpairment of renal failures. Azotaemia. Anurial. Sodium loss in renal diseases.liver function tests. Jaundice types and pigment excretion in jaundice; urine and Blood urea ammonia. Urinalysis. parproteinaemia, Bounce Jones proteinuria and its Significance.

400 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

ANT411:  Gross Anatomy(Prosection) I (6 Credits)

A general over view of the upper limb, lower: Limb, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and perineal regions in both theoretical and practical demonstration by every student in this level.

ANT412:Cell Biology I (3 Credits)

Practical and theoretical oriented course on the cell, tissue, organ and systemic cell biology will be studied. Mechanism and current evolutional trend comparative anatomy and choice of experimental animal will also be considered.  

ANT413: Histochemistry and cytochemistry(3 Credits)

Cytochemical and histochemical background and its importance. Basic equipment and techniques used in carbohydrate, protein & lipids histochemistry, pigments histochemistry, Enzyme histochemistry and procedures employed.  Immunohistochemistry.

ANT414: Functional Anatomy of thorax and Abdomen (3 Credits)

Clinical Anatomy of the thoracic and abdominal regions. This include the surface anatomy of all the visceral and their clinical importance to medicine will be studied.

SECOND SEMESTER

ANT421: Gross Anatomy (Prosection) II (4 Credits)

General overview of the thoracic and abdominal regions. This include the surface anatomy of all the visceral, and their clinical importance to medicine will be reviewed.

ANT422: Systemic EmbryologyIII – REVIEW (3 Credits)

The development and associated anomalies with the body system will be reviewed.

ANT423: CELL Biology II (3 Credits)

Histological techniques and relevant of systemic cell biology. Teratology and their applied anatomy to human existence. General cell biology will be reviewed.

ANT424: SYSTEMIC HISTOLOGY III (3 Credits)

Preparation of slides, preservation, and embalmment of dead bodies, photomicrography, prosectomy, etc.

ANT425: Research Project and Viva (6 Credits)

A Simple research project will be carried out by the students in their area of interest under supervision by an Academic staff approved by the Department of Anatomy.

ANT426:  Research Seminar and Presentation (2 Credits)